March 20, 2020

Go Filipino - 16. Let's Talk About Relations (Pronouns, Part 2)

A pseudo breakdown transcript of the podcast Go Filipino Lesson 16 by Kris Andres. For more information about Kris and his podcast check out his Patreon!

This episode brought to you today by the Tagalog word Palakasan.

Palakasan - Sport, an athletic event that requires skill and physical strength.

  • lakas - Root Word

Relational Pronouns

These pronouns are used to replace the nouns or noun phrases that are introduced by the markers: ng, ni, and nina. In contrast to the focus pronouns, relational pronouns are not the focus in a tagalog sentence. In an English sentence, the focus is always on the subject. Usually the one that is performing the verb. But in a tagalog sentence, the focus can either be the subject, the direct object, or the beneficiary depending on the markers that are being used.

Non focus relational pronouns

Ko

ko - My, of mine

  • Singular first person relational pronoun.

kotse ko yan - That is my car

  • kotse - car
  • ko - my
    • Always comes after the noun to signify possession
  • 'yan - that - The focus of this sentence

binilhan ko siya ng pantalon - I bought him/her a pair of jeans

  • binilhan - bought for someone else
  • ko - I (not focus)
  • siya - him/her (is focus)
  • ng - object marker
  • pantalon - pants

Mo

mo - your, or of yours

  • Singular second person relational pronoun

maganda ang bahay mo - Your house is beautiful

  • maganda - beautiful
    • ganda - root word - beauty
  • ang - Object Marker
  • bahay - house
  • mo - your

nalimutan mo ang susi - You forgot the key

  • nalimutan - forgot
  • mo - you (not focus of sentence)
  • ang - Focus object marker
  • susi - key

Niya

niya - his/her, of his/her

  • Singular third person relational pronoun. It functions like ko/mo.

Maamo ng aso niya - His/her dog is well behaved.

  • maamo - Tamed or well behaved
    • Only used for animals
  • ang - Focus object marker
  • aso - dog
  • niya - his/her

nakain yang tanghalian - He/she ate the lunch

  • nakain - Ate
  • niya - he/she
  • ang - focus object marker
  • tanghalian - lunch
    • tanghali - Root word - afternoon time

Namin

namin - Our, not including you
Exclusive first person plural relational pronoun

nabayaran ang utang namin - Our debt has been paid

  • nabayaran - Paid
  • ang - focus marker
  • utang - debt
  • namin - Our, not including you

dinalaw namin sila - We (except you) visited them

  • dinalaw - visited
  • namin - we (except you) non focus actors
  • sila - they/them (focus)

Natin

natin - Our, including you

  • Inclusive first person plural relational pronoun. Much like namin, this also acts as a posession marker.

Nagisin ang pusa natin - Our cat woke up

  • Nagising - Woke
  • ang - focus marker
  • pusa - Cat
  • natin - our (including you)

Linising natin ang kapaligiran - Let's clean the surroundings
Linising - Cleaning
natin - Lets, us/we.
ang - focus marker
kapaligiran - Surroundings

Ninyo

ninyo - Your, in plural form.

  • Second person plural relational pronoun. The plural form of you/your.

Dumating ang mga order ninyo - Your orders have arrived

  • Dumating - Arrived
  • ang - Focus marker
  • mga - plural indicator
  • order - Order (english)
  • ninyo - your (in plural form)

buhatin ninyo ang kama - Lift the bed. (But addressing more than one person)

  • Buhatin - Lift
  • ninyo - you (all), you in plural form
  • ang - focus marker
  • kama - bed

Nila

Nila - Their/they as non focus actors.

  • Third person plural relational pronoun.

Magtanim kayo sa bukid nila - Plant in their farm. (addressed to multiple people)

  • Magtanim - Plant (verb)
  • kayo - You all (focus of sentence)
  • sa - Location marker
  • bukid - Farm
  • nila - Their
    • Not my farm, not your farm, their farm.

Sinunod nila ang mga otos ko - They followed my command

  • Sinunod - Followed
  • nila - They
  • ang - Focus marker
  • mga - Plural indicator
  • otos - command
  • ko - my

Demonstrative Relational Pronouns

Nito

Nito - Of this, it, them

  • When used, this object/noun being talked about should be near the speaker.

dahil murang damit, bumili ako nito - Because the dress is cheap, I bought it.

  • dahil - Because
  • mura - Cheap
    • Has mutliple meanings though, in this context it means cheap.
  • ang - Focus Marker
  • damit - Dress/shirt/Clothing
  • bumili - Bought
  • ako - I
  • nito - This

Niyan

Niyan - Of that, it, them

  • When used, the object/noun being talked about is far from the speaker, but near the recipient.

Mahilig ka sa itlog, kayat nagluluto ako niyan - You like eggs, so I cooked that.

  • Mahilig - Something you are interested in, or like
  • ka - You - focus of this clause
  • sa - Direction marker
  • itlog - egg
  • kayat - So, that's why, hence
  • nagluluto - cooked
  • ako - I
  • niyan - that

Niyon

Niyon - Of that, it, there

  • When used, the object/noun being talked about is far from both the speaker and recipient

Palabas na ang pelikula. Manonood ka ba niyon? - THe movie is now showing, are you going to watch it?

  • palabas - A show, as a TV show or movie. In this context thought it stand for a showing in verb form.
  • na - This partical emphasises 'nowness'. So now.
  • ang - Focus marker
  • pelikula - Movie
  • manonood - To watch
  • ka - You
  • ba - Question marker
  • niyon - It, not close to either of us.

Outro

Tagalog Proverb

Ang magnanakaw ay galit sa kapwa magnanakaw. - A theif hates a fellow theif. You are who you hate. You despise who or what reminds of you of own wrong doings.