Changing a word based on it's affix.
Um affix and doubled syllable rules.
Some of this information I have taken from here.
Also, here's a link to a huge list of verbs and their proper tense affixes:
If the word starts with a consonant you, you split the first consonant and vowel with -um-. If the root word starts with a vowel you prefix it with -um-.
You double up the first syllable.
It's a combination of past and future tense to get the present tense. See chart below:
Mag vs Nag
This should be pretty easy, but mag/nag has other implementations outside of tense. Like turning a noun into a verb. In the sense of tense though: mag is future, nag is present.
The different uses between using mag/nag and um is kinda wishy-washy. I seem to find different answer as to which is proper. In the end, they both kinda do the same thing, but using mag/nag can sometimes change the word's meaning altogether. This thread had a pretty good breakdown though.
Ma- and Pa-
Changing a noun into an adjective/adverb/verb. Information summarized from this post here.
When attached to a noun, it changes the noun into an adjective/verb. Then in some cases provide a tense to a verb making it infinitive or future tense. See examples below.
|Tulog||Sleep||Matutulog ka||Go to sleep|
|ligo||Bath||maligo ka||Go take a bath|
|ganda||beauty||maganda||beautiful (full of beauty)|
|tabat||fat||matabat||fatso (full of fat)|
Pa is used to politely ask to perform an action. Information summarized from here.
|abot||Paabot ng suka||Kindly hand me over the vinegar|
|lagay||Palagay diyan||Kindly put it there.|
Pa can also be used as
yet when followed up by an action.
|nagluluto pa ako||I'm still cooking|
|merong pa||There's still some (more)|